Rosa Luxemburg (Rosalia Luxemburg, polsk: Róża Luksemburg; født 5. marts 1871, død 15. januar 1919) var en polsk-tysk socialistisk politisk tænker, der i starten af det 20. århundrede kritiserede den reformisme, det tyske socialdemokrati var slået ind på. For his famous booklet, "Against Militarism," he was imprisoned for months on end. Following one frightfully unsuccessful exchange of fire for the French in 1915, the French frontline soldiers gathered in a circle, started a fire, and the survivors––among whom were many French intellectual workers––began to discuss their fate and think about what awaited them further. The last phrase in Liebknecht's letter read as such: "Comrades, our business now is to say––no civil peace, but. He did not personally participate in the Zimmerwald conference because he had been conscripted; he was sent to the front in the calculation that a stray bullet would remove that dangerous enemy of the bourgeoisie. I remember conversations with Rosa Luxemburg in 1906 in the village of Kuokkala in the little apartment of Comrade Lenin, then in semi-emigration after the first revolution had been broken. The famous Monument to Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht, originally named Monument to the November Revolution (Revolutionsdenkmal) which was built in 1926 in Berlin-Lichtenberg and destroyed in 1935, was designed by pioneering modernist and later Bauhaus director Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. Rosa Luxemburg especially emphasized this. Died in 1924 "out of work.". [4], As a lawyer, Liebknecht often defended other left-wing socialists who were tried for offences such as smuggling socialist propaganda into Russia, a task in which he was also involved. ", She did not betray herself during the war either. And he succeeded in breaking the ice. Marx demanded the 'Merciless criticism of everything that exists': for us that includes Marxism itself. He was a controversial figure during the Revolution of 1918-19 who advocated a Bolshevist style proletarian revolution. Doch beide blieben bei ihrer aufrührerischen Propaganda. Spartakus : Rosa Luxemburg und Karl Liebknecht.. [Giselher Schmidt] Home. A pacifist who during the war gave many widely broadcast speeches against the war and proposed the project for creating the League of Nations as a means for promoting peace in the future. There have been struck down from our ranks two leaders whose names will be for ever entered in the great book of the proletarian revolution: Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg. During the war became an ardent chauvinist and in 1918 played a leading role in the counterrevolutionary movement in the Baltics. Ottokar Luban, The Role of the Spartacist Group after 9 November 1918 and the Formation of the KPD, in: Ralf Hoffrogge and Norman LaPorte (eds. Karl Liebknecht 1914 decemberében a Reichstagban egyedül szavazott a hadihitelek ellen, a háborút pedig imperialista rablóháborúnak bélyegezte, amivel új lendületet adott a németországi háborúellenes küzdelemnek. Nearly one hundred years ago, Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht (both born in 1871, the year of the Paris Commune) were arrested and executed by ultranationalist members of the Freikorps during the early morning hours of January 15, 1919. Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution, Wilhelm Martin Philipp Christian Ludwig Liebknecht, "Luxemburg und Liebknecht: Dauerfehde um einen Doppelmord", "One hundred years since the murder of Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht", "The Murder of Rosa Luxemburg review – tragedy and farce", "Die Ermordung von Rosa Luxemburg und Karl Liebknecht", "Lenin-Liebknecht-Luxemburg 2016: Zehntausende beim Gedenken und 14.000 auf der Demonstration", Newspaper clippings about Karl Liebknecht,, Social Democratic Party of Germany politicians, Members of the 13th Reichstag of the German Empire, Members of the Prussian House of Representatives, People of the German Revolution of 1918–1919, Articles needing translation from German Wikipedia, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with Encyclopædia Britannica links, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1922 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from Collier's Encyclopedia, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the Encyclopedia Americana with a Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. German Social Democrats decided that only an adventurer could propose that! Dietz Verlag, Berlin 1971. They were both born in the same year, 1871, and died on the same day, their names necessarily linked in history. She said, "Look what is happening in Riga and in the occupied places. Liebknecht was in poor standing with the leaders of the Second International even before the start of the war, but with the start of the war he landed among the unquestionably suspicious. At a moment when things are particularly difficult, when our Red Army soldiers, somewhere around Archangelsk or in some other distant front in the cold, poorly dressed and shoed, have to lie side-by-side and return fire from imperialist bands; or when our women workers have to return to hungry children with an eighth of a pound of bread or have to overcome these or other new adversities––at that difficult moment we will remember Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg. Rosa Luxemburg began her work as a young girl in Poland and then continued it in Germany; she worked also in Russia. He became a member of the SPD in 1900 and was president of the Socialist Youth International from 1907 to 1910. Hun stod i 1919 sammen med bl.a. Zum Gedenken an Karl Liebknecht und Rosa Luxemburg, die ermordet wurden. German Politician. Verhaftung am 15. Wir unterstützen eine Busfahrt nach Berlin, um an der traditionellen Luxemburg-Liebknecht-Demo am Ehrenmal in Friedrichsfelde teilzunehmen. Geburtstag von Karl Liebknecht und Rosa Luxemburg. [14][15], Clara Zetkin penned an obituary for Liebknecht in September 1919[16] and together with Rosa Luxemburg he became a celebrated martyr of the German left. Nanetheless, Luxemburg an Liebknecht war extensively idolised as communist mairtyrs bi the East German communist regime. Now imagine the pain that news that Karl Liebknecht is no longer among the living calls forth in the hearts of both German and French soldiers. Eine Biographie. Liebknecht came from a political background in that his father was a leading socialist in Germany … Januar 1919 wurden Rosa Luxemburg und Karl Liebknecht wegen ihrer politischen Überzeugungen getötet. The annual L-L Demo is held on the second Sunday in January to this day[20] and 14,000 people attended the rally in Liebknecht and Luxemburg's honor in 2016. After their deaths, Liebknecht and Luxemburg became martyrs for the socialist cause in Germany and throughout Europe. [9] Following the outbreak of the German Revolution, Liebknecht carried on his activities in the Spartacist League. In the course of the entire war, one can say, she did not spend a single month in freedom,––Wilhelm with his gang and Scheidemann[4] with his fraternity played with her like a cat with a mouse––releasing her for several days, and, after a short time, picking her up again and putting her in prison, concocting various accusations, setting trials. We need to return, comrades, to the atmosphere of sleek and decorous Social Democracy and the Second International of that time, when the demands of Liebknecht seemed to be madness. Wir kämpfen weiter, für eine Gesellschaft ohne Ausbeutung und Unterdrückung!! At present Scheidemann and his gang, Ebert. Many considered him a great prophet who would open a new era in the history of humanity. Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg always felt the most intimate and fraternal connection to our revolution. In 1920, during the attempted revolutionary coup in Germany carried out by Kapp, offered his final services. ), Weimar Communism as Mass Movement 1918–1933, London: Lawrence & Wishart, 2017, pp. When the working class sacrifices its blood so selflessly, gives up the best that it has without hesitating for a second, will rank-and-file participants really waver? What do you mean, go to the soldiers to preach socialism! Karl Liebknecht, (born Aug. 13, 1871, Leipzig—died Jan. 15, 1919, Berlin), German Social Democrat, who, with Rosa Luxemburg and other radicals, founded the Spartakusbund (Spartacus League), a Berlin underground group that became the Communist Party of Germany, dedicated to a socialist revolution.Liebknecht was killed in the Spartacus Revolt of January 1919. To Karl Liebknecht belongs, of course, no less credit. [1]  "Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg," a speech delivered to a meeting of the Petrograd Soviet on 18 January 1919, was published in a special brochure together with a speech of Comrade Trotsky. In 1917–1918 enjoyed immense popularity not only in liberal bourgeois circles but also among American and West European workers. Translation involves difficult decisions about word choice and sentence structure, but I have tried to remain true to the author's meaning without doing violence to his words. If possible, verify the text with references provided in the foreign-language article. He resumed leadership of the group together with Luxemburg and published its party organ, Die Rote Fahne (The Red Flag). Read her speech to the congress of Spartacists,[8] given on 31 December, 1918. ... // accessed ), memorial page for Dr Rosalia “Rosa” Luxemburg (5 Mar 1871–15 Jan 1919), Find a Grave Memorial no. Create lists, bibliographies and reviews: or Search WorldCat. Karl Liebknecht und Rosa Luxemburg. Daniel Hartley, Marxist Theory in Japan: A Critical Overview, Origins of the French Fifth Republic: A Reading Guide, Sartre and his Critique of Dialectical Reason, The Sexuality and Political Economy Network. In the course of the entire war, one can say, she did not spend a single month in freedom,––Wilhelm with his gang and Scheidemann. Sophie und Karl Liebknecht mit den Kindern aus seiner ersten Ehe, 1913 Im Jahr 1908 wurde er Mitglied des Preußischen Abgeordnetenhauses, obwohl er noch nicht aus der Festung Glatz in Schlesien entlassen worden war. The uprising was brutally opposed by the new German government under Friedrich Ebert with the help of the remnants of the Imperial German Army and militias called the Freikorps. Rosa Luxemburg sounded the revolutionary alarm, she demanded honesty and loyalty to the banner of the International. Rosa Luxemburg stands in the ranks of the few figures of the Third International who combine the qualities of ardent agitator, brilliant politician and, along with them, one of the greatest theoreticians and writers of Marxism. This month marks the 90th anniversary of the murder of Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht, two outstanding revolutionary leaders of the German working class. The entire hope of the world bourgeoisie is concentrated on using any sort of barrier to separate the workers of one country from the workers of another country, and, most important, to separate them from the workers of Russia, who defeated their bourgeoisie. Read her speech to the congress of Spartacists, Scheidemann and Ebert are now calling their constituent assembly, A Dying Class: The Traditional Middle-Class in Britain 2020, A Philosophy of Revolutionary Practice: The first two theses on Feuerbach [1977]. Ready at that time to drown every German in a spoonful of water, he appeared with an article in which he said: there were only two Germans in Germany who, after the Franco-Prussian war, remained internationalists––Marx and Engels. Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg (1919) W E HAVE suffered two heavy losses at once which merge into one enormous bereavement. Zinoviev's tribute was published in Volume 16 of his collected works, (Sochineniia, vol. In the next year, he was elected to the Prussian parliament despite still being in prison.[6]. Rosa Luxemburg, Mar 5 1871 - Jan 15 1919, is the great Marxist theorist, writer, economist, revolutionist, anti-war and anti-capital-punishment activist, and philosopher who was murdered during the German Revolution of 1918–1919. K. Liebknecht first of all thought of us, of the Russian revolution, and headed directly to his goal, to the building of the Russian embassy, where our comrades were still at that time, bared his head before the building and said that he sends "brotherly greetings to the first government of the calloused hand.". Dozens of articles about this were printed in the most widely distributed bourgeois newspapers, and entire brochures were published to the effect that K. Marx was himself always a pan-Germanist, a proponent of the "great" bourgeois Germany. A Rosa Luxemburg e Karl Liebknecht non se lles autoriza a asistir ao congreso, nin tan sequera con voz consultiva. In the end, however, Wilson signed the Versailles agreement, and the League of Nations became a simple servant of the Entente. More than once she rebuked the most stalwart leaders of German Social Democracy in the discussion of questions of foreign policy, saying that, when the issue is adopting resolutions, the socialists are very radical, but when it comes to genuine struggle against the war and against the government that called forth this war, then they all "hide in the bushes. Look how the international proletariat views our policies. And when the entire official, so-called Socialist Party of France gave in to that chauvinist current, the aged Vaillant[5], the old communard, in his elder years having extended his hand to the devil of defencism, nevertheless lost his patience when newspapers began to defame Engels. The poem below was written by the German poet Ferdinand Freiligrath (1810 – 1876) in 1851. The goal of the union was to fight against official Social Democracy, which had betrayed the cause of the proletariat and supported the military policies of the German [bourgeoisie]. Title: Memorial to Rosa Luxemburg and and Karl Liebknecht Author: Ludwig Mies van der Rohe Location: Berlin, Germany Year complete: 1926, destroyed 1933 In 1926, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe was commissioned by communist art historian and collector Eduard Fuchs to build a monument to Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht, two Marxist revolutionaries murdered by right-wing reactionary … Die SED und das Gedenken an Rosa Luxemburg und Karl Liebknecht. Such was the official slogan of German Social Democracy. Marxists’ Internet Archive Deutschsprachiger Teil, 2013. augusztus 13. On 1 May 1916 he was arrested and imprisoned for giving an anti-war speech in central Berlin. Comrades, our hearts are heavy. Anlass der diesjährigen Demo ist der 100. At the beginning of the war, in 1915, everything German was cursed in France. Campus, Frankfurt am Main 2008, ISBN 978-3-593-38747-5 (alemany) Barbara Könczöl: „Dem Karl Liebknecht haben wir's geschworen, der Rosa Luxemburg reichen wir die Hand“ – Der Wandel des 15. Sie findet regelmäßig um das Datum ihres Todestages, am zweiten Januarwochenende, in Berlin statt und verläuft in der Regel vom Frankfurter Tor bis zur Gedenkstätte … Liebknecht was released again in October 1918, when Prince Maximilian of Baden granted an amnesty to all political prisoners. Prior to the war stood on the right wing of the party, during the war an ardent chauvinist, after the war an irreconcilable foe of the communists. Karl und Rosa. This week marks the centennial of the Jan. 15, 1919, murders of German communists Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht. She did not betray herself during the war either. Ahead are months and possibly years of difficult trials, deprivation, struggle.". Művei. Yesterday was difficult for us, comrades; and today is difficult; these days are difficult for us. And only a small group of Marxists, at the head of which stood Lenin and Rosa Luxemburg, said in 1907, eleven years ago: imperialist war is approaching, the bourgeoisie of all countries is leading all of humanity toward this unavoidable catastrophe. Januar 1919 wurden die Sozialisten Rosa Luxemburg und Karl Liebknecht von Freikorpstruppen unter Einwilligung der SPD verhaftet, in „Schutzhaft“ genommen und ermordet. The hatred of these leaders of the German proletariat is now obvious! Do you want to know why exactly Rosa Luxemburg was killed? Zinoviev's tribute was published in Volume 16 of his collected works (Sochineniia, vol. Über Rosa Luxemburg und Karl Liebknecht Sozialismus oder Barbarei!-Rosa Luxemburg. Rosa Luxemburg accused Scheidemann and his gang of wanting to help strangle the Russian revolution. These gentlemen quickly dressed themselves up as proponents of Soviet power, seized the driving reins, and to get to power German workers will have to step over the corpse of so-called Social Democracy. Soft cover. In note 8 I have replaced "proletariat" with "bourgeoisie," as it seems obvious that this was intended. Luxemburg holttestét a közeli folyóba dobták (májusban került elő), Liebknechtét a közeli hullaházba vitték azonosítás nélkül. Wilson's prestige suffered a fatal blow, he became a laughing stock for the entire world. Emotion Coaching; Free Resources; Blog; Contact When the "independents," together with the official SDs, joined the "Council of People's Plenipotentiaries" (a provisional revolutionary government) in November 1918, the Spartacists broke with them and, in December 1918, formed the German Communist party. The Berlin communards knew, just like the Petrograd workers in October last year, what they would have to endure after the seizure of power. [7]  Wilson, Woodrow (1857–1924)––"Democratic" president of the United States, formerly a professor. Leader of a small group of Blanquists. [10]  The speech was given on 18 January 1919, and 19 January of the same year elections for the National Assembly were to be held. Following one frightfully unsuccessful exchange of fire for the French in 1915, the French frontline soldiers gathered in a circle, started a fire, and the survivors––among whom were many French intellectual workers––began to discuss their fate and think about what awaited them further. Karl Liebknecht––Comrade Trotsky also spoke to you about this––endured the entire revolution of 1905 together with us. Imagine what powerful propaganda the very death of such a man as Karl Liebknecht serves for the idea of communism. [11] Together with Luxemburg, Jogiches and Zetkin, Liebknecht was also instrumental in the January 1919 Spartacist uprising in Berlin. Three days after the murders of Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht in January, 1919, Grigorii Zinoviev, chair of the Petrograd soviet, delivered to that body the following tribute. Her murder was couched in terms of “Hohenzollern Germany celebrat (ing) its last triumph and Nazi Germany its first”, by socialist historian Isaac Deutscher. There is a document––and, probably, there are many of them––that bears witness to the love in France for Karl Liebknecht. ", She hurled that right in their faces! Liebknecht also wrote extensively against militarism. Refusing to fight, he served burying the dead and due to his rapidly deteriorating health was allowed to return to Germany in October 1915. Save for Later. Liebknecht was one of the first to swim against the current. Karl Liebknecht was the leading German socialist opponent of the First World War. Die jaarlikse herdenking van die moord op Rosa Luxemburg en Karl Liebknecht, wat op die tweede Sondag van Januarie in Berlyn plaasvind, is nog steeds een van die grootste politieke betogings van Duitsland. So what would have happen if Karl and Rosa weren't killed and turned Germany into their version of communist haven, with a Jewish woman in charge? Such was the official slogan of German Social Democracy. Is this not the greatest satisfaction for the workers, for the peasants and Red Army soldiers of Soviet Russia? Although the circumstances were disputed by the perpetrators at the time, the Freikorps commander, Captain Waldemar Pabst, later claimed: "I had them executed". In the presidential election of 1920 he was replaced by the "Republican" Harding. Reden G. Sinowjew und L. Trotsky auf der Sitzung des Petrograder Sowjets am 18. Zum 100. The German Federal Office for the Pertection o the Constitution notes that idolisation o Rosa Luxemburg ad Karl Liebknecht is an important tradeetion o German faur-left activism. Karl Liebknecht y Rosa Luxemburg juggerjack84. Rosa Luxemburg, with characteristic clarity, sketched the situation in Germany in a few words in her final speech. ON Wednesday, January 15th, 1919 Karl Libeknecht and Rosa Luxemburg were murdered. Today marks the passing of 100 years since the murders of Rosa Luxemburg (1871-1919) and Karl Liebknecht (1871-1919). Items in brackets are the translator's insertions for clarity or, in the case of note 6, correction of Friedrich Ebert's name (identified as "Fritz" in the original). [2]  Born in 1870, killed 15 January, 1919. 16, Osnovopolozhniki i vozhdi kommunizma; biograficheskie ocherki, Leningrad: Gosizdat, 1924, 198–212). Possessing all of these first-class attributes, Rosa Luxemburg worked on the stage of the labour movement no less than a quarter century.